Last Updated on 12 Jan 2023

Point prevalence survey of antibiotic use among hospitalized patients across 41 hospitals in Thailand.



To describe the antibiotic use among hospitalized patients in Thailand.


A standardized cross-sectional point prevalence survey (PPS) modified from the WHO PPS protocol was conducted in 41 selected hospitals in Thailand. All inpatients who received an antibiotic at 9 a.m. on the survey date were enrolled. The total number of inpatients on that day was the denominator.


Between March and May 2021, a total of 8958 inpatients were enumerated; 4745 inpatients received antibiotics on the day of the survey and there were 6619 prescriptions of antibiotics. The prevalence of antibiotic use was 53.0% (95% CI 51.1%–54.0%), ranging from 14.3% to 73.4%. The antibiotic use was highest among adults aged >65 years (57.1%; 95% CI 55.3%–58.9%). From 6619 antibiotics prescribed, 68.6% were used to treat infection, 26.7% for prophylaxis and 4.7% for other or unknown indications. Overall, the top three commonly used antibiotics were third-generation cephalosporins (1993; 30.1%), followed by first-generation cephalosporins (737; 11.1%) and carbapenems (703; 10.6%). The most frequently used antibiotics for community-acquired infections were third-generation cephalosporins (36.8%), followed by β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (11.8%) and carbapenems (11.3%) whereas for the patients with hospital-acquired infections, the most common antibiotics used were carbapenems (32.7%), followed by β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (15.7%), third-generation cephalosporins (11.7%) and colistin (11.7%). The first-generation cephalosporins were the most commonly used antibiotics (37.7%) for surgical prophylaxis. Seventy percent of the patients received surgical prophylaxis for more than 1 day post surgery.


The prevalence of antibiotic use among hospitalized patients in Thailand is high and one-quarter of these antibiotics were used for prophylaxis. The majority of surgical prophylaxis was inappropriately used for a long duration post operation. Therefore, it is recommended that local guidelines should be developed and implemented.

International Journal
JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance 2023;5:dlac140.
Anugulruengkitt S , Charoenpong L , Kulthanmanusorn A , Thienthong V , Usayaporn S , Kaewkhankhaeng W , Rueangna O , Sophonphan J , Moolasart V , Manosuthi W , Tangcharoensathien V
Anugulruengkitt S.